C were examined and the performance of h2o2 and 2,5bistertbutylperoxy2,5dimethylhexane as peroxides was compared. A fluorescent snp detection based on he graphene platform. Synthesis of 3dfng, 3dng, and 3dg graphene oxide go was prepared by oxidation of natural graphite using a modified hummers method as reported in our previous paper 36, 37, 38. A number of techniques for preparing graphene sheets have been developed but.
Synthesis of graphene oxide by modified hummers method and measuring the synthesis yield were investigated. Gto was also prepared by the following method modi. To prepare the 3dfng, 60 ml of homogeneous go 3 mg ml. Graphene sheets offer extraordinary thermal, electronic and mechanical properties which could enhance the performance of the device for various applications. After the same reaction at low temperature as in hummers method, the mixture was heated up to 60 c and held for 30 min, then 230 ml distilled water was added into the mixture that was. Highefficient synthesis of graphene oxide based on improved. In this article, we are going to learn about the methods of graphene synthesis that are hummers method, chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation of graphene, electrochemical exfoliation. Blister formation during graphite surface oxidation by hummers method olga v.
Though the extraction of graphene through hummers method is one of the oldest techniques yet it is one of the most suitable methods for the. This method requires fewer hazardous materials and is carried out at lower temperatures. Graphite was used as the raw material and kmno4 and h2so4 were used as chemical reagents. Magnetically recoverable fe2o3ngraphene with enhanced. Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets via modified hummers.
The graphene oxide sheets prepared by this approach, contains various functional groups such as epoxide and hydroxyl. Subsequently, the mixture was carefully diluted with deionized water, filtered and. Hui xu,a,1 qing yang,b,c,1 fan li, b linsheng tang,c shanmin gao,a bowei jiang,d xingchun zhao,d blihua wangb and chunhai fan. Go was prepared from natural flake graphite through onepot synthesis based on new modified hummers method. The effect of temperature and type of peroxide on graphene. By comparison, the weak new characteristic peaks attributed to c n and n h bond of pyrrolic and pyridinic groups can be found at about. Currently, synthesis methods for massive production are seemingly abundant but in. Go was prepared from natural graphite by the hummers method. This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of graphene obtained by the hummers method with some modifications. Gro samples were analyzed by raman spectroscopy, sem, tem, elemental analysis, xray diffraction, n2 adsorptiondesorption, and thermogravimetric analysis. Hummers graphene can be prepared using hummer hummers method 19 was reported by marcano methods for synthesis of grapheme there are various methods for synthesis of. Schematic diagram of go preparation via hummersoffeman method 10. Apratim khandelwal different methods for synthesis of graphene supervision by. In this research, go produced by the hummers, tour, and staudenmaier methods were characterized and embedded at various fractions into the.
Graphene does not requires any proof of its importance because of its electronic spectrum, grapheme is emerging as a new standard of relativistic condensed matter physics. In the present study, a simple approach has been followed for the synthesis of graphene oxide go using modified hummers method in which graphite powder. Synthesis of superior dispersions of reduced graphene oxide. Pdf synthesis of graphene oxide using modified hummers.
Synthesis of graphite oxide the synthesis of graphite oxide from graphite powder was carried out by using hummers and offeman method 57. Synthesis of graphene oxide go by modified hummers. In this paper, we reported about the facile method to generate ngraphene nano sheets ngns on room temperature. Tem and dfm analyses showed that go sheets prepared in this study had single and double lamellar layer. Synthesis of graphene oxide using modified hummers method. Afterwards, 15 g of kmno 4 panreac, 99% was added slowly and.
Research article study of reduced graphene oxide preparation. Synthesis of graphene oxide go by modified hummers method. Characterization of graphene nanosheets obtained by a. However, the challenge is to synthesize graphene in a bulk quantity. Therefore, synthesis costs were significantly lower than those related to the published improved hummers method. The results indicate a high degree of graphite oxidation, proving that the process was efficient.
Thermal analysis of the improved hummers synthesis of. Before the method was developed, the production of graphite oxide was slow and hazardous to make because of the use of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid. It is commonly used by engineering and lab technicians as a reliable method of producing quantities of graphite oxide. Photosynergetic electrochemical synthesis of graphene. Controllable sizeselective method to prepare graphene. In this method, the experiment was synthesized without sodium nitrate nano3 and ice bath, but carried out at room temperature. Synthesis of graphene oxide by modified hummers method and. Towards largescale in freestanding graphene and ngraphene. Go prepared by this method could be used for preparing large graphitic films 14. Synthesis of graphene oxide go by modified hummers method and its thermal reduction to obtain reduced graphene oxide rgo doi. There are several methods of synthesizing graphene and graphene oxide. An economic assessment for the industrial scale demonstrated that this process could be viable from the third year after its implementation. In 1958, hummers reported an alternative method for the synthesis of grapheme oxide by using kmno 4 and nano 3 in concentrated h 2so 4.
To achieve these, samples are taken after every preparation step and analyzed with tgdtams, ftir, xrd and semedx techniques. The synthesis of graphene oxide go was performed in accord to a reported method 12 in which the graphite 1. Oct 21, 2016 the effects of temperature and the type of peroxide used in improved hummers method for synthesis of graphene oxide were investigated. Aug 02, 2017 for more details please logon to instanano nanotechnology at instanat synthesis of graphene oxide hummers method synthesis of go modified hummers method how to synthesized graphene. One of the greatest challenges in the commercialization of graphene and derivatives is production of high quality material in bulk quantities at low price and in a. Though the extraction of graphene through hummers method is one of the oldest techniques yet it is one of the most suitable methods for the formation of bulk graphene. Graphene oxide go films with twodimensional structure were successfully prepared via the modified hummer method. First, kclo was replaced by kmno as theoxidationagent. Synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets via modified hummers method and its physicochemical properties mohamad fahrul radzi hanifah a,b, ajuhana jaafar a, madzlan aziz b, ahmad fauzi ismail a, mukhlis a. An improved hummers method for ecofriendly synthesis of. A simple approach to stepwise synthesis of graphene oxide. In the present work, oxidation has been done using the modified hummers method. The mixture was held at 80c for 6 h with continuous stirring and then cooled down to room temperature. Contents introduction to graphene properties applications methods used cvd chemical vapor deposition.
Influence of different improved hummers method modifications. However, a large quantity production and the direct dispersion of graphene or graphite sheets in water without the assistance of dispersing agent has been considered to be a challenging issue. Graphene oxide go was prepared from graphite powder using modified hummers method, followed by reduction of exfoliated go with hydrazine hydrate which resulted in formation of high surface area two dimensional. In this method, strong oxidizing agents are used to oxidize graphite to obtain graphite oxide which is highly nonconducting and hydrophilic material. Different samples of graphite oxide gro were prepared by modification of the improved hummers method reported in the literature. Synthesis of graphene oxide by hummers method and its. Water soluble graphene synthesis chemistry journals. Based on the results, a comprehensive method to measure graphene oxide synthesis yield was proposed which will allow comparison of future literature results. Measuring synthesis yield in graphene oxide synthesis by.
Jan 31, 2015 the above video shows a step by step synthesis procedure of go. The oxidation of graphite by powerful oxidants used in this method is not easily controllable and this. Go plays important roles in the sustainable development of energy and the environment, taking advantages of oxygencontaining functional groups for good dispersibility and assembly. Synthesis of graphene oxide go was prepared using a modified hummers method. Go was prepared by oxidizing the purified natural flake graphite nfg by a mod ified hummers method. We have found that excluding the nano3, increasing the amount of kmno4, and performing the reaction in a 9. The synthesized graphene oxide was prepared by the optimized improved hummers method. Blister formation during graphite surface oxidation by. In 1859, brodie was the first to demonstrate synthesis of graphite oxide by adding potassium. Graphene can be obtained in the form of reduced graphite oxide, sometimes also referred as graphene oxide.
Jun 07, 2012 these oxidation methods typically use concentrated sulfuric acid a in combination with fuming nitric acid and kclo3 staudenmaier method, b in combination with concentrated nitric acid and kclo3 hofmann method or c in the absence of nitric acid but in the presence of nano3 and kmno4 hummers method. Aug 31, 2017 in order to test the direct route for ngraphene synthesis as well as to demonstrate potential of the method, nitrogen gas flow 510 sccm has been added to the ethanol flow. Graphene synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and transfer. In this method, the experiment was synthesized without sodium nitrate nano 3 and ice. Effect of graphene oxide synthesis method on properties. Graphenes prepared by staudenmaier, hofmann and hummers. Go was obtained from graphite flakes by using modified hummers method in which different from conventional hummers method. Hummers method is a chemical process that can be used to generate graphite oxide through the addition of potassium permanganate to a solution of graphite, sodium nitrate, and sulfuric acid. Go is prepared by common hummers method designed many years ago, 18 and other modified hummers techniques 16. Over the span of years, improvements over various synthesis methods of graphene are constantly pursued to provide safer and more effective alternatives. Highefficient synthesis of graphene oxide based on improved hummers method article pdf available in scientific reports 6. This research used the modified hummers s method to generate gns. It is proven that redox method is a promising way to synthesize go films on a large scale. Scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, uvvis absorption.
Currently, hummers method kmno4, nano3, h2so4 is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. Pdf in this study, we focused on production of rgo 1 by reduction of go 2. The staudenmeierhoffman hamdi method introduced the addition of potassium chlorate. Compared with hummers method, electrochemical exfoliation of graphite is considered facile and. Modified and improved hummers synthesis of graphene oxide for. After that, chemist hummer and offeman introduced their method that currently often used by the researches to produce graphite oxide in 1958 34. Threedimensional fe3o4ngraphene sponge as an efficient. Here we reported an improved nano3free hummers method by partly replacing kmno4 with k2feo4 and controlling the amount of. Towards largescale in freestanding graphene and ngraphene sheets article pdf available in scientific reports 71 december 2017 with 565 reads how we measure reads. Pdf towards largescale in freestanding graphene and n. As a novel twodimensional carbon material, graphene has fine potential applications in the fields of electron transfer agent and supercapacitor material for its excellent electronic and optical property.
Comprehensive characterizations of the properties of go films were conducted. In this study, graphene was synthesized using the recently developed improved hummers method to achieve a high oxidation rate and thermal treatment of the. Pdf reduced graphene oxide synthesis via improved hummers. Sep 25, 2017 the improved hummers synthesis of graphene oxide go from graphite is investigated to monitor how the functional groups form during the synthesis steps. Hummers method is one of the easiest and economical methods to synthesize huge amount of reduced graphene oxide rgo sheets. The purposes of this research are to synthesize and characterize ngns.
Study of reduced graphene oxide preparation by hummers. Improving the quality of graphene oxide prepared by hummers. High throughput graphene oxide in modified hummers method and. An improved hummers method without using nano 3 can produce graphene oxide nearly the same to that prepared by conventional hummers method. Pdf synthesis of graphene oxide go by modified hummers. Graphene oxide preparation by using modified hummer s method graphene oxide go was prepared from graphite flakes by using modified hummer s method. Jul 22, 2015 hummers method is one of the most popular methods for preparing graphene oxide. In this method, 100g of graphite powder, 50g of sodium nitrate nano3, 2.330 216 1085 790 1520 1328 740 932 224 205 1063 854 997 422 1250 724 384 124 1344 1452 1155 798 1427 418 479 1230 397 1107 942 658 838 21 1399 214 222 622 634 581