Homographs are words with the same spelling but having more than. What is the difference between homonymy and polysemy. The boundaries between polysemy and homonymy seem to be characterised by flux, rather than fix, as a result of semantic shift, referential dispersion, semantic closeness, human subjectivity and, first and foremost, a lack of firm groundrules on the basis of which the. Polysemy and homonymy a case study of the challenges. Polysemous meaning in the cambridge english dictionary. Polysemy refers to the coexistence of many possible meanings for a word or phrase. Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymy or homophony which is an accidental similarity. Homonymy and polysemy in semantic analysis, the theoretical d istinction between homonymy and po lysemy creates a problem that ha s cap tivated the attention of many linguists. Then a question comes up as the notion of homonymy and polysemy may look similar. Hyponymy hyponymy is a relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the words includes the meaning of the other word. The word polysemy comes from the greek for many signs. Polysemy definition, a condition in which a single word, phrase, or concept has more than one meaning or connotation.
A criterion for distinguishing polysemous and homonymic expressions is a historical or conceptual relationship between the words. Another example is book, which can mean something to read or the act of making a reservation. Producers of dictionaries often make a decision in. The resolution of the difference between wordform and concept representation is. The hyponym includes the meaning of the hypernym, which is the more general word. Polysemous words can cause difficulty in contexts where the meaning is other than the primary meaning of the word. For a commonplace example, consider the meaning of the adjective good in the following sentences. Hyponymy hyponymy is a relation of inclusion between a hyponym and a hypernym or superordinate.
Polysemous forms can be divided into words that show regular and irregular polysemy. Apr 05, 2020 homonym plural homonyms semantics, strict sense a word that both sounds and is spelled the same as another word. Polysemy and homonymy present a significant problem in that one wordform often expresses two or more differing k. Flexible patterns of meaning in mind and language, page 3. For each example, discuss what is going on that makes the example polysemous. Homonymy definition is the quality or state of being homonymous. Homonyms can refer to both homophones and homographs. Homonymy and polysemy both involve one lexical form that is associated with multiple senses and as such both are possible sources of lexical ambiguity. This can mean both a holding area for animals and a writing instrument. It is associating a single word with two or more distinct definitions, and a polyseme is a multisignificant word or phrase the term polysemy derives from greek for multiple signs examples.
Homonym definition, a word pronounced the same as another but differing in meaning, whether spelled the same way or not, as heir and air. From the explanation above, we can conclude that a word is polysemous if it can be used to express different meanings. Find other lexemes words that behave the same way and give examples of the di erent meanings. The words are considered to be related etymologically. In other words, it can be described as multiple meanings of words. The word polysemy means plurality of meanings it exists only in the language, not in speech.
Lyons statement shows that the distinction between polysemy and homonymy is more complex than is generally perceived. Polysemous definition of polysemous by merriamwebster. In a piece of text, one can come across a set of words, which may appear either homonymous or polysemous. Results show that retrieval is more sensitive to polysemy than homonymy and that, when resolving. In doing this, lexicographers generally take the view that homonymy relates to different words whose forms have converged while polysemy relates to one word whose meanings have diverged or radiated.
The problem of homonymy is mainly the problem of differentiation between two different semantic structures of identically sounding words when analysing different cases of homonymy we find that some words are homonymous in all their forms, i. A term in linguistics for words or other items of language with two or more senses, such as walk in the child started to walk and they live at 23 cheyne walk. Differentiating homonymy and polysemy in information. In other words it is the capacity for a word, phrase, or sign to have multiple meanings i. This study answers these questions using a simulation of the effects of ambiguity on information retrieval. So, homonymy is a relation that holds between two lexemes that have the same form but unrelated meanings. Polysemy as in potatono e chips which itself trades on the other meaning as in chip of wood metonymy chips doesnt just mean chips.
Apr 09, 20 1 polysemy polysemy is the state or phenomenon in which the words that have more than one meaning. In deciding between polysemy or homonymy, it might be necessary to look at the history of the word to see if the two meanings are historically related. Just as there is a clear difference between homonymy and polysemy, as shown above, the structures of these two types of word are thought to be different in our mental lexicon. Mar 28, 2018 homonymy and polysemy both involve one lexical form that is associated with multiple senses and as such both are possible sources of lexical ambiguity. A word is polysemous if it can be used to express di erent meanings. In contrast, a onetoone match between a word and a meaning is called monosemy. Homonymy homonyms two or more words that are identical in form but different in meaning. Contrastive view of polysemous and homonymous terms in business english jargon summary. The fact that polysemy is a property of single words is what differentiates it from homonymy in principle ly ons 1982.
It goes beyond previous studies by differentiating between homonymy and polysemy. The secret of homonymy and polysemy meaning in linguistics. They recognised that the various senses of a polysemous word could be derived from a basic sense but did not go further than that. Polysemy definition of polysemy by the free dictionary. Polysemy the existence of more than one meaning for a given word, that is, the capability of a word to convey different information about objects and phenomena of extralinguistic reality. But while homonyms are distinct lexemes that happen to share the same form, in polysemy. Since both types of word are often similar in surface representation. There is no need for the terms polysemy and homonymy in lexicography. A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning and is spelled differently. Dictionaries recognize the distinction between polysemy and homonymy by making a polysemous item a single dictionary entry and making homophonous lexemes two or more separate entries. Polysemy is thus distinct from homonymyor homophonywhich is an accidental similarity between two words such as bear the animal, and the verb to bear. Homonymy and polysemy in semantic analysis, the theoretical distinction between homonymy and polysemy creates a problem that has captivated the attention of many linguists.
However, the difference between homonymy and polysemy is subtle. From this, one can define polysemy as a case i n which a. Polysemy pollyseamus in latin is defined roughly as the existence of one lexeme with many related meanings. The interaction of homonymy and polysemy was not significant by participants or items f jul 07, 2016 difference between polysemy and homonymy definition. Regular polysemy is a form of systematic, recurring polysemy. Recent examples on the web in one of the more extreme polysemous developments, a word can take on an opposite meaning, as dust v. Cognitive nature of polysemy in malayalam 165 centering these examples, polysemy can be considered, on the other hand, as multiple meanings emanated from a homogenous basic structure. Examples of this polysemy can be found in the dutch word vrouw which can mean both wife and woman. Hyperlexeme filipec a polysemic lexeme with several meanings.
A relationship of hyponymy exists between dog and animal. Polysemy polysemy is the existence of several meanings for a single word or phrase. Polysemy meaning in the cambridge english dictionary. Definition of homonymy the word homonym has been derived from greek term homoios which means identical and onoma means name. Polysemy pollyseamus in latin is defined roughly as the existence of onelexeme with many related meanings. In english, homonym is a word that sounds the same as another word but differs in meaning. It is intended to supplement the discussion on pages 2 of the textbook, not replace it. The adjective forms of the word include polysemous or polysemic. The di erence between the meanings can be obvious or subtle. Different meanings of a polysemantic word may come together due to the proximity of notions which they express.
Differentiating homonymy and polysemy in information retrieval. Oct 25, 2019 polysemy usually uncountable, plural polysemies semantics the property of a word, sign or symbol that can represent multiple similar meanings. Some words, such as run or set have more than thirty different meanings. Polysemy is an aspect of semantic ambiguity that concerns the multiplicity of word meanings. Therefore, lexicographers define polysemy within a single dictionary lemma, numbering different meanings, while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. Ad hoc concepts, polysemy and the lexicon robyn carston 1. Polysemy article about polysemy by the free dictionary. Homonymy refers to the existence of two or more words having the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings and origins. Generally, the relationship can be described in the terms hyponym is a hypernym. Fifty years ago the linguist and semanticist stephen ullmann wrote that polysemy, the fact that some words have a network of multiple but related meanings, is the.
Homonymy and polysemy are related concepts in that both describe a. The effects of homonymy and polysemy on lexical access. Polysemy is a pivotal concept within the humanities, such as media studies and linguistics. It deals with the phenomena of polysemy and homonymy which often appear as stumbling blocks to linguists and learners of business english. The fact that polysemy is a property of single words is what differentiates it from homonymy in principle lyons1982. Some apparently unrelated words share a common historical origin, however, so etymology is not an infallible test for polysemy, and dictionary writers also. Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different semantic structure. Homonymy definition of homonymy by the free dictionary.
For my part, therefore, i am inclined to see features of both monosemy and polysemy in a words semantic structure. Polysemy has different, yet related meanings homonymy has completely different meanings origins. For instance, the words neck, guard, music, and bachelor are. Polysemy is the association of one word with two or more distinct meanings. He gives two criteria to simplify the complexities of identifying polysemy from homonymy, i. The organization of the senses of polysemy in japanese efl. For example, the russian word gorlo has four meanings. Real homonyms sound and look in written form identical. The study of polysemy of a language has often been associated with the study of homonymy because distinction between the two has often not been very clear. There is no need for the terms polysemy and homonymy in.
Results show that retrieval is more sensitive to polysemy than homonymy and that, when resolving polysemy, accuracy as low as 55% can potentially lead to increased performance. Polysemy traditionally, two types of lexical amibiguity are distinguished. The converse of this problem is synonymytwo or more word forms expressing one concept e. Having or characterized by many meanings, as the words play and table. Absolute vs partial homonymy 3 criteria for absolute homonyms.
Computation semantics and generative lexicon theory september 1, 2009 choose 2 of the following 5 examples of polysemy. Polysemy is the association of one word with two or more distinct meanings, and a polyseme is a word or phrase with multiple meanings. This paper tries to understand the cognitive nature of polysemy in a more discursive and precise ways. It doesnt even just mean computers, nor does it just mean all the domestic appliances and other everyday things that have computer chips in them phones, cars, washing machines.
Nov 15, 2009 hyponymy, homonymy, polysemy, synonymy, antonymy and metonymy are different types of lexical relations. Difference between polysemy and homonymy definition. But while homonyms are distinct lexemes that happen to share the same form, in polysemy a single lexeme is associated with multiple senses. Polysemy is the coexistence of many possible meanings for a word or phrase homonymy is the existence of two or more words having the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings and origins meanings. This paper is an endeavour to highlight the problem of multimeaningfulness in business english vocabulary. Polysemy is the coexistence of many possible meanings for a word or phrase homonymy is the existence of two or more words having the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings and origins. Very often, the distinction between polysemy and homonymy cannot be drawn precisely. Such senses may be more or less distant from one another. It is also seen in the english word girl which can mean both small female child and girlfriend. Hyponymy, homonymy, polysemy, synonymy, antonymy and metonymy are different types of lexical relations. Hyponymy definition, the state or quality of being a hyponym, a term that denotes a subcategory of a more general class. In both cases, the sound and spelling are the same, and only the definition changes. Homonymy and polysemy this handout contains a brief explanation of homonymy and polysemy.666 520 994 1403 395 46 662 639 334 1379 1190 1059 687 165 944 401 393 21 437 343 232 1090 15 1438 1175 1005 100 80 692 646 921 464 1013 914 1368 56 65 877 341 554 323 1052 566 1062 324 151 528 716